Papper-1

Papper-1

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Concept of teaching

The chief task of education is, above all, to shape man, or to guide the evolving dynamism through which man forms himself as a man.”

Traditional concept:- Teaching is the act of imparting instructions to the learners in the class- room situation. It is traditional class-room teaching. In traditional class-room teaching the teacher gives information to students, or one of the students, or one of the students reads from a text-book, while the other students silently follow him in their not merely imparting knowledge or information to students. While imparting knowledge teacher should kept in mind the child as well as the orderly presentation of subject-matter.

Modern concept: Teaching is to cause the pupil to learn and acquire the desired knowledge, skills and also desirable ways of living in the society. It is a process in which learner, teacher, curriculum and other variables are organised in a systematic and psychological way to attain some pre-determined goals.

Some Expert Views about Concept of Teaching:

  1. Ryburn’s view: “Teaching is a relationship which keeps the child to develop all his powers.”
  2. Burton’s view: “Teaching is the stimulation guidance, direction and encouragement of learing.”
  3. Smith’s view: In words of B.O. Smith, “Teaching is a system of actions intended to produce learning.”

Understanding the term ‘Education’

What is Education?

In Literary sense, education owes its origin to the two Latin words: (i) ‘Educare’,and(ii)‘Educere’.

(i) Educare: The word ‘educare’ means ‘to nourish’, ‘to bring up’, ‘to raise’. This means when we talk of educating a child, we mean to bring him up or nourish him according to certain aims or ends in view.

(ii) Educere: The term ‘educare’ means, ‘to bring forth’: ‘to lead out’: to draw out’. Accordingly, ‘education’ implies ‘drawing out’ or ‘leading out’ what is there inside the child.

Bi-Polar-Adams View:

There is constant interaction between the teacher and the taught and the impact of personalities like two poles interacting with each other.

Tri-Polar-Modern View:

The teacher consciously designs and plans educational experiences in the light of social environment. This is possible when the child participates in the social situations and there is an interaction between him and the environment.

Concept of teaching:

The chief task of education is, above all, to shape man, or to guide the evolving dynamism through which man forms himself as a man.

Characteristics of good teaching:

Matter of drawing out

Matter of adjustment

Causing to learn

Wider and narrow meaning of education

Training of the education Preparation for life Professional activity

Having considered the derivative meaning of education, we can further interpret education in terms of its (i) Wider meaning, and (ii) Narrow meaning

(a) Wider meaning of education

In its wider sense, education is a life-long process. It starts with conception and ends with death i.e., it is process from ‘womb to tomb’.

(b) Narrower meaning of education

“In the narrow sense, education is confined to school and university instruction.” It is believed that education starts as soon as the child enters the school. It is over when he leaves it after completing a particular course of studies.

Definition of education:-

(i) According to Upanishads, “Education is that whose product is salvation”.

(ii) Shankaracharya says, “Education is the realization of the self.”

(iii) Mahatma Gandhi, says: “ By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man-body, mind and spirit.”

Characteristics of good teaching:

  1. Matter of drawing out
  2. Matter of adjustment
  3. Causing to learn
  4. Training of the education
  5. Preparation for life
  6. Professional activity
  7. Giving guidance

Significance of the study

>To provide the quality education at secondary level in bringing out the “creative self” for the nation

>Enhancing teacher effectiveness and quality of education in schools

>To inculcate fundamental qualities in teachers like adequate teaching skills, professional characteristics, classroom management skills, interpersonal relationships.

>To make the teacher emotionally intelligent and competent to address to the emotional needs of students so that learning becomes effective.

>Recognizing the enormous potential of education in shaping the personality of future citizens.

>To construct a valid instrument for measuring teacher’s behaviour outside the classroom

Levels of Teaching

In the formal classroom setting the task of teaching carried out by the teacher along with his pupils, according to Biggie (1967), can be performed at various levels ranging from the least thoughtful to the most thoughtful behavior or mode of action. Many psychologists and educationalists have identified following three levels of teaching:

>Memory level

>Understanding level

>Reflective level

Memory level falls at the bottom (or on a three point rating scale at the extreme left) depicting the involvement of the least thoughtful behavior and the reflective level at the top needing the involvement of higher cognitive abilities and the most thoughtful behavior. The understanding level falls in between, requiring the involvement of the thoughtful behavior in a moderate reasonable amount.

  1. Memory level

Teaching at the memory level represents the involvement of the least thoughtful behavior. In such type of act memory plays a key role. The teacher presents factual information before the learner. The learner tries to mug up these facts with the least involvement of his thinking and reasoning power without any care of understanding of their meaning and application.

According to Morris L. Bigge

Teaching at memory level is that type of act which supposedly embraces committing factual materials to memory and nothing else.

Features associated with learning at memory level

  1. Analysis of the subject matter.
  2. Definite and fixed order of the subject-matter.

iii. Rigid adherence to the presentation of the subject matter.

  1. Mechanical handling of the various segments of the elements.

Underlying psychological theories and ideas

Memory-level teaching is influenced by the following psychological theories and ideas:

  1. The theory of mental faculty or mental discipline

Based on this theory teaching task at memory level aims to discipline or train the faculties of mind, particularly the faculty of memorization through exercise, repetition and practice of the learned material.

  1. The Herbartian theory of apperception

In the spirit of this theory, the task of teaching at the memory level consists of implanting in the minds of the learners a great mass of factual information merely through the process of mechanical memorization.

iii.  The Thorndike’s connectionism

Based on this theory memory level teaching emphasizes establishment of S.R. connections quite mechanically through memorization. It gives full weightage to the law of exercise propounded by Thorndike in the process of learning.

  1. The theory of conditioning

Influenced with the theory of classical and operant conditioning memory level teaching task converts itself into task of habit formation through repetition of the association  between stimuli and response.

Objectives

The teaching act performed at the memory level is confined to achieve the knowledge objective in the following ways:

  1. Acquisition of presented facts through rote learning.
    ii. Retention and reproduction (through recall or recognition) of the acquired factual information as and when needed.

 Understanding level

The understanding level is characterized by seeing of relationship and tool use of a fact. This level of teaching is that teaching which seeks to acquaint students with the relationship between generalization and particulars and between principles and solitary facts, which show the uses for which the principles may be applied. The ‘explanatory understanding’ as a form of teaching is supported by the Theory of Apperception of Herbart. According to this theory, three stages of learning are implied. First is the stage primarily of ‘sense activity’. This is followed by the stage of ‘memory’ which is characterized by exact reproductions of previously formed ideas. The third and highest level is that of’conceptual thinking’ or ‘understanding’.

Teaching becomes a highly systematic and ordered set of activities in the ‘understanding level’ presentations. Preparation, presentation, comparison, generalization and application are five Herbartian steps indicated here to equip the students to generalize insights which can be employed in problematic situations both in and outside the school.

Reflective level

The term ‘reflective level’ is indicative of the highest level of thoughtfulness on the part of the teacher as well as the learner. This level basically involves the use of scientific method to the understanding of the problems with which a person is confronted. It consists of two phases: 1. Problem raising and 2. Problem solving. The personal involvement of the learner and his intensity of feeling for obtaining a solution are the indicators of the success of reflective level of teaching and learning. The ‘cognitive field theory’ provides a support to the reflective level of teaching and learning. The method of teaching in this frame of reference becomes an inquiry into the problems and their solutions. It assumes spontaneous interchange between the teacher and student.

The awareness and skill of the concept of teaching and learning relationship and the levels of teaching and learning is more important for the teachers. Because it has great significance in planning and preparing lesson plan and for achieving objectives by creating appropriate learning situations. Transfer of learning can be improved by using the theory of generalisations and identical elements.
characteristics of effective teaching:
– Knowledge of basic principles and procedures
(pedagogical theory);
– Planning and preparation;
– Teaching experience (practice);
– Self-reflection and modification of techniques;
– Flexibility.
Having many years of experience does not guarantee expert teaching; experience is useful only when the teacher continually engages in self-reflection and modifies classroom techniques to better serve the needs of students. Teachers must prepare to teach a wide range of students in terms of interest, motivation and ability, some of whom may need additional assistance. Effective teachers assess needs, abilities, and preparedness on a class-by-class basis and respond to these needs accordingly. Effective teachers:
– adjust their lessons based upon the needs and abilities of their students,
– keep abreast of developments in their field or discipline and incorporate these ideas into their lessons,
– organize the material in such a way as to best facilitate learning,
– use effective communication skills.
Establish parameters
Good teachers define tasks clearly and set high expectations for behavior and learning. They assume that students will strive to
meet expectations, and they realize that
expectations can often generate outcome.
>Deal with needed changes from a positive point of view. Honest and frequent feedback is essential to
learning, but even very negative feedback can be offered in a constructive, non-threatening way. Instructors can usually find some good point to praise and can suggest specific ways in which unsatisfactory performance can be improved.
>Use student-centered instruction. Student- centered instruction involves planning learning activities that will actively engage students. Effective teachers use these instructional
>strategies to develop students’ personal investment and interest in learning.
> Be enthusiastic. Although most instructors find their discipline compelling, sometimes it is hard to convey excitement about a familiar topic. Effective teachers try to cast the familiar in a new light or present concepts in a fresh way to maintain enthusiasm. Instructors who are excited about their discipline pass that enthusiasm on to students.

प्राचीन भारतीय शैक्षिक केन्द्र :
वैदिक काल से ही भारत में शिक्षा को बहुत महत्व दिया गया है। इसलिए उस काल से ही गुरुकुल और आश्रमों के रूप में शिक्षा केंद्र खोले जाने लगे थे। वैदिक काल के बाद जैसे-जैसे समय आगे बढ़ता गया। भारत की शिक्षा पद्धति भी और ज्यादा पल्लवित होती गई। गुरुकुल और आश्रमों से शुरू हुआ शिक्षा का सफर उन्नति करते हुए विश्वविद्यालयों में तब्दील होता गया। पूरे भारत में प्राचीन काल में 13 बड़े विश्वविद्यालयों या शिक्षण केंद्रों की स्थापना हुई।

8 वी शताब्दी से 12 वी शताब्दी के बीच भारत पूरे विश्व में शिक्षा का सबसे बड़ा और प्रसिद्ध केंद्र था।गणित, ज्योतिष, भूगोल, चिकित्सा विज्ञान के साथ ही अन्य विषयों की शिक्षा देने में भारतीय विश्वविद्यालयों का कोई सानी नहीं था।
•नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय (Nalanda university)
यह प्राचीन भारत में उच्च शिक्षा का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण और विख्यात केन्द्र था। यह विश्वविद्यालय वर्तमान बिहार के पटना शहर से 88.5 किलोमीटर दक्षिण-पूर्व और राजगीर से 11.5 किलोमीटर में स्थित था। इस महान बौद्ध विश्वविद्यालय के भग्नावशेष इसके प्राचीन वैभव का बहुत कुछ अंदाज करा देते हैं।

सातवीं शताब्दी में भारत भ्रमण के लिए आए चीनी यात्री ह्वेनसांग और इत्सिंग के यात्रा विवरणों से इस विश्वविद्यालय के बारे में जानकारी मिलती है। यहां 10,000 छात्रों को पढ़ाने के लिए 2,000 शिक्षक थे। इस विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना का श्रेय गुप्त शासक कुमारगुप्त प्रथम 450-470 को प्राप्त है। गुप्तवंश के पतन के बाद भी आने वाले सभी शासक वंशों ने इसकी समृद्धि में अपना योगदान जारी रखा। इसे महान सम्राट हर्षवद्र्धन और पाल शासकों का भी संरक्षण मिला। भारत के विभिन्न क्षेत्रों से ही नहीं बल्कि कोरिया, जापान, चीन, तिब्बत, इंडोनेशिया, फारस तथा तुर्की से भी विद्यार्थी यहां शिक्षा ग्रहण करने आते थे।

इस विश्वविद्यालय की नौवीं शताब्दी से बारहवीं शताब्दी तक अंतरर्राष्ट्रीय ख्याति रही थी। सुनियोजित ढंग से और विस्तृत क्षेत्र में बना हुआ यह विश्वविद्यालय स्थापत्य कला का अद्भुत नमूना था। इसका पूरा परिसर एक विशाल दीवार से घिरा हुआ था। जिसमें प्रवेश के लिए एक मुख्य द्वार था। उत्तर से दक्षिण की ओर मठों की कतार थी और उनके सामने अनेक भव्य स्तूप और मंदिर थे। मंदिरों में बुद्ध भगवान की सुन्दर मूर्तियां स्थापित थीं। केन्द्रीय विद्यालय में सात बड़े कक्ष थे और इसके अलावा तीन सौ अन्य कमरे थे।

इनमें व्याख्यान हुआ करते थे। अभी तक खुदाई में तेरह मठ मिले हैं। वैसे इससे भी अधिक मठों के होने ही संभावना है। मठ एक से अधिक मंजिल के होते थे। कमरे में सोने के लिए पत्थर की चौकी होती थी। दीपक, पुस्तक आदि रखने के लिए खास जगह बनी हुई है। हर मठ के आंगन में एक कुआं बना था। आठ विशाल भवन, दस मंदिर, अनेक प्रार्थना कक्ष और अध्ययन कक्ष के अलावा इस परिसर में सुंदर बगीचे व झीलें भी थी। नालंदा में सैकड़ों विद्यार्थियों और आचार्यों के अध्ययन के लिए, नौ तल का एक विराट पुस्तकालय था। जिसमें लाखों पुस्तकें थी।

•तक्षशिला विश्वविद्यालय (Takshashila university)
तक्षशिला विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना लगभग 2700 साल पहले की गई थी। इस विश्विद्यालय में लगभग 10500 विद्यार्थी पढ़ाई करते थे। इनमें से कई विद्यार्थी अलग-अलग देशों से ताल्लुुक रखते थे। वहां का अनुशासन बहुत कठोर था। राजाओं के लड़के भी यदि कोई गलती करते तो पीटे जा सकते थे। तक्षशिला राजनीति और शस्त्रविद्या की शिक्षा का विश्वस्तरीय केंद्र थी। वहां के एक शस्त्रविद्यालय में विभिन्न राज्यों के 103 राजकुमार पढ़ते थे।

आयुर्वेद और विधिशास्त्र के इसमे विशेष विद्यालय थे। कोसलराज प्रसेनजित, मल्ल सरदार बंधुल, लिच्छवि महालि, शल्यक जीवक और लुटेरे अंगुलिमाल के अलावा चाणक्य और पाणिनि जैसे लोग इसी विश्वविद्यालय के विद्यार्थी थे। कुछ इतिहासकारों ने बताया है कि तक्षशिला विश्विद्यालय नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय की तरह भव्य नहीं था। इसमें अलग-अलग छोटे-छोटे गुरुकुल होते थे। इन गुरुकुलों में व्यक्तिगत रूप से विभिन्न विषयों के आचार्य विद्यार्थियों को शिक्षा प्रदान करते थे।

•विक्रमशीला विश्वविद्यालय (Vikramshila university)
विक्रमशीला विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना पाल वंश के राजा धर्म पाल ने की थी। 8 वी शताब्दी से 12 वी शताब्दी के अंंत तक यह विश्वविद्यालय भारत के प्रमुख शिक्षा केंद्रों में से एक था। भारत के वर्तमान नक्शे के अनुसार यह विश्वविद्यालय बिहार के भागलपुर शहर के आसपास रहा होगा।

कहा जाता है कि यह उस समय नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय का सबसे बड़ा प्रतिस्पर्धी था। यहां 1000 विद्यार्थीयों पर लगभग 100 शिक्षक थे। यह विश्वविद्यालय तंत्र शास्त्र की पढ़ाई के लिए सबसे ज्यादा जाना जाता था। इस विषय का सबसे मशहूर विद्यार्थी अतीसा दीपनकरा था, जो की बाद में तिब्बत जाकर बौद्ध हो गया।

•वल्लभी विश्वविद्यालय (Vallabhi university)
वल्लभी विश्वविद्यालय सौराष्ट्र (गुजरात) में स्थित था। छटी शताब्दी से लेकर 12 वी शताब्दी तक लगभग 600 साल इसकी प्रसिद्धि चरम पर थी। चायनीज यात्री ईत- सिंग ने लिखा है कि यह विश्वविद्यालय 7 वी शताब्दी में गुनामति और स्थिरमति नाम की विद्याओं का सबसे मुख्य केंद्र था। यह विश्वविद्यालय धर्म निरपेक्ष विषयों की शिक्षा के लिए भी जाना जाता था। यही कारण था कि इस शिक्षा केंद्र पर पढ़ने के लिए पूरी दुनिया से विद्यार्थी आते थे।

•उदांत पुरी विश्वविद्यालय (Odantapuri university)
उदांतपुरी विश्वविद्यालय मगध यानी वर्तमान बिहार में स्थापित किया गया था। इसकी स्थापना पाल वंश के राजाओं ने की थी। आठवी शताब्दी के अंत से 12 वी शताब्दी तक लगभग 400 सालों तक इसका विकास चरम पर था। इस विश्वविद्यालय में लगभग 12000 विद्यार्थी थे।

•सोमपुरा विश्वविद्यालय (Somapura mahavihara)
सोमपुरा विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना भी पाल वंश के राजाओं ने की थी। इसे सोमपुरा महाविहार के नाम से पुकारा जाता था। आठवीं शताब्दी से 12 वी शताब्दी के बीच 400 साल तक यह विश्वविद्यालय बहुत प्रसिद्ध था। यह भव्य विश्वविद्यालय लगभग 27 एकड़ में फैला था। उस समय पूरे
विश्व में बौद्ध धर्म की शिक्षा देने वाला सबसे अच्छा शिक्षा केंद्र था।

•पुष्पगिरी विश्वविद्यालय (Pushpagiri university)
पुष्पगिरी विश्वविद्यालय वर्तमान भारत के उड़ीसा में स्थित था। इसकी स्थापना तीसरी शताब्दी में कलिंग राजाओं ने की थी। अगले 800 साल तक यानी 11 वी शताब्दी तक इस विश्वविद्यालय का विकास अपने चरम पर था। इस विश्वविद्यालय का परिसर तीन पहाड़ों ललित गिरी, रत्न गिरी और उदयगिरी पर फैला हुआ था।

नालंदा, तशक्षिला और विक्रमशीला के बाद ये विश्वविद्यालय शिक्षा का सबसे प्रमुख केंद्र था। चायनीज यात्री एक्ज्युन जेंग ने इसे बौद्ध शिक्षा का सबसे प्राचीन केंद्र माना। कुछ इतिहासकार मानते हैं कि इस विश्ववविद्यालय की स्थापना राजा अशोक ने करवाई थी।

Why choose us

One of the most important decisions you will face as a Aspirant is the choice of Coaching Institution. Kalp Education is passionate about the education of all of our students, making us an extremely popular and over-subscribed choice for Students. We are dedicated to the development of Student competitive & academically Environment.

At Kalp , we aim to target the highest standards in all elements of Competition life and beyond and achieve this through a focus on a number of key areas:

•Experienced Leadership
We have a passionate and dedicated team of senior staff with a clear vision, who are driven by a commitment to develop students Competitive & Academic Environment.

•Inspirational Faculties
Our Faculties share our passion for all-round educational excellence. They are driven by the desire to see young people develop in all aspects of their lives, seeking to serve, encourage, direct, discipline, empower and inspire.

Supportive Parents & Friends
We actively encourage your involvement and seek to support your guiding role.As a Coaching, we have a desire to work with parents to ensure your child receives the best possible education and achieves their personal best.

•Motivated Students
Why choose us?We encourage Students to work hard and, in return, they are recognised and rewarded throughout their time with us. Similarly, we are keen to have well behaved students who will work well together, supporting each other and enjoying Coaching in a safe and positive environment.

•Expanding Horizons
The Kalp is committed to the all-round development of Student’s talents and interests. The extracurricular programme is varied and exciting, challenging and stretching, allowing students the chance to gain new experiences or deepen existing skills outside of the classroom.

•Developing Academically
Each student at Kalp is challenged to achieve their personal best in all areas of their lives. Competitive & Academically, we support all students and set challenging targets. Regular monitoring and feedback helps each students to achieve their very best.

 

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